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What Are The Subdivisions of Vibration Sensors?

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What Are The Subdivisions of Vibration Sensors?

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1、relative and inertial vibration sensors

Relative vibration sensor is mainly used to measure the vibration body relative to the movement of the vibration reference point (for example, machine tool shafts relative to the vibration of the machine base); inertial vibration sensors are mainly used to measure the vibration movement of the object relative to the ground or inertial space. (For example, the vibration of the seat, ground vibration, aircraft vibration in the air, etc.), inertial vibration sensor to be installed in contact with the vibration measurement, the relevant sensor can be contact or non-contact.


2、Electrical vibration sensor

Electrical vibration sensors are divided into relative electrical sensors and inertial electrical sensors. Relative electric sensors are based on the principle of electromagnetic induction, that is, when a moving conductor cuts a line of magnetic force in a fixed magnetic field, an electric potential is induced at both ends of the conductor. Therefore, sensors produced utilizing this principle are referred to as electrical sensors. An electrical inertial sensor comprising a stationary part, a moving part and a support spring, said stationary part having a sufficiently low intrinsic frequency in order for the sensor to operate in the state of a displacement sensor, the mass of the moving part needing to be sufficiently large, and the stiffness of the support spring needing to be sufficiently small.


According to the law of electromagnetic induction, the induced electromotive force is in T&CTS, B is the magnetic flux density, the effective length of the coil in the magnetic field, and Rx&CTS the relative velocity of the coil in the magnetic field. In terms of sensor structure, an inertial sensor is a displacement sensor. However, since the output electrical signal is generated by electromagnetic induction, according to the law of electromagnetic induction, when the coil moves relative to each other in a magnetic field, the induced electromotive force is proportional to the velocity of the coil in the electrically tangential magnetic line of force.


3、Piezoelectric vibration sensor

Piezoelectric vibration sensors can be further categorized into piezoelectric acceleration sensors, piezoelectric force sensors and impedance heads.


4、Piezoelectric acceleration sensor

Piezoelectric acceleration sensor mechanical receiving part of the inertial acceleration mechanical receiving principle, the electromechanical part of the piezoelectric crystal using the positive piezoelectric effect. The principle is that some crystals (such as piezoelectric quartz crystals. Different piezoelectric materials have different piezoelectric coefficients, which can usually be found in the table of piezoelectric material properties). Under the action of an external force in a certain direction or when deformed, an electric charge is generated on the surface of their crystals. This conversion from mechanical energy (force, deformation) to electrical energy (charge, electric field) is called the positive piezoelectric effect. The conversion from electrical energy (electric field, voltage) to mechanical energy (deformation, force) is called the inverse piezoelectric effect.


Therefore, the piezoelectric effect of crystals can be used to make force sensors. In vibration measurement, since the force on the piezoelectric crystal is an inertial force in an inertial mass, the number of charges generated is proportional to the acceleration, and a piezoelectric acceleration sensor is an acceleration sensor.


5、piezoelectric force transducer

In vibration testing, in addition to vibration measurement, it is usually necessary to measure the excitation force applied to the specimen. Piezoelectric force sensors have the advantages of wide frequency range, large dynamic range, small size, light weight and so on. The working principle of the piezoelectric force sensor is to use the piezoelectric effect of piezoelectric crystals, that is, piezoelectric force sensor output signal charge is proportional to the external force.


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