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What is the principle of mechanical reception of vibration sensors?

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What is the principle of mechanical reception of vibration sensors?

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The vibration sensor is one of the key components in test technology. Its main function is to receive mechanical quantities and convert them into proportional electrical quantities, the vibration sensor is also an electromechanical conversion device.


Vibration sensors do not directly convert the original mechanical measurement into electrical energy, but rather the original mechanical measurement as the input to the vibration sensor, and then by the mechanical reception of the part of the formation of another suitable for the conversion of mechanical quantities, mechanical quantities through the electrical conversion part of the conversion into electrical energy. Therefore, the operational performance of the sensor depends on the operational performance of the mechanical receiving part and the electrical conversion part.

1.Relative mechanical reception principle

Since mechanical motion is a simple form of physical motion, the first thing that came to mind was the measurement of mechanical vibration, so they made mechanical vibrometers (e.g. Geiger vibrometers, etc.). This is the basis for the principle of mechanical sensor reception. Its working principle is: when the measured rod and the vibration direction of the measured object is the same, the instrument will be fixed in the fixed bracket, through the elasticity of the spring and the surface of the measured object contact. When the body vibrates, the contact rod moves with the push of the recording pencil, and the displacement curve of the vibrating body with time is drawn on the moving paper tape, and according to the logging curve, the displacement, frequency and other parameters can be calculated.


The relative measurement of a mechanical receiver element results in the relative vibration of the measured object with respect to a reference object. The absolute vibration of the measured object can only be measured if the reference object is completely fixed.


This is useless when absolute vibration measurements are required but no fixed reference point can be found. For example, there is no fixed reference point to test the vibration of a diesel locomotive and to measure the vibration of the ground and buildings during an earthquake. In such cases, another vibration measurement instrument, an inertial vibrometer, must be used.

2.Inertial mechanical reception principle

To measure mechanical vibrations, an inertial vibrometer is fixed directly to the vibration measurement point of the object to be measured. When the sensor housing is moved together with the vibration measuring body, the inertia block supported by elasticity moves relative to the housing, and a recorder pen mounted on the inertia block records the amplitude of the relative displacement, the vibration between the mass element and the housing.

3.Electromechanical conversion principle of vibration sensors

In general, there are only two types of vibration sensors according to the principle of mechanical reception: the relative type and the inertial type. However, when it comes to electromechanical transformations, they have a wide range of types and applications due to the different methods and properties of the transformations.


The sensors used in modern vibration measurement are no longer independent mechanical measurement devices in the traditional sense, it is only a part of the telemetry system, and has a close connection with the remote electronic circuit. Due to the different electrical conversion principles within the vibration sensor, the output power is also different, some changes in mechanical quantities change the change in electric potential, and some changes in charge change the electrical parameters of mechanical vibration, such as resistance and inductance.

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